National Geographic Society
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036
December 4, 1986
Mr. James Close
Poc, Indiana [stet] 83202
Dear Mr. Close:
Thank you for writing to the National Geographic Society with your questions
about the Book of Mormon.
In referring your inquiry to Dr. George Stuart, the staff archaeologist
of the National Geographic Society, I was informed that neither the Society
nor any other institution of equal prestige has ever used the Book of Mormon
in locating archaeological sites. Although many Mormon sources claim that
the Book of Mormon has been substantiated by archaeological findings, this
claim has not been verified scientifically.
According to sources at the Smithsonian Institution, the physical type
of the American Indian is basically Mongoloid, being most closely related
to that of the peoples of eastern, central and northeastern Asia. Archaeological
evidence indicates that the ancestors of the present Indians came into the
New World--probably over a land bridge known to have existed in the Bering
Strait region during the last Ice Age--in a continuing series of small migrations
beginning from about 25,000 to 30,000 years ago.
One of the main lines of evidence supporting the scientific finding that
contacts with Old World civilizations, if indeed they occurred at all, were
of very little significance for the development of American Indian civilizations,
is the fact that none of the principal Old World domesticated food plants
or animals (except the dog) occurred in the New World in pre-Columbian times.
American Indians had no wheat, barley, oats, millet, rice, cattle, pigs,
chickens, horses, donkeys, camels before 1492. (Camels and horses were in
the Americas), along with the bison, mammoth, and mastodon, but all these
animals became extinct around 10,000 B.C. at the time the early big game
hunters spread across the Americas.
Iron, steel, glass, and silk were not used in the New World before 1492
(except for occasional use of unsmelted meteoric iron). Native copper was
worked in various locations in pre-Columbian times, but true metallurgy
was limited to southern Mexico and the Andean region, where its occurrence
in late prehistoric times involved gold, silver, copper, and their alloys,
but not iron.
There is a possibility that the spread of cultural traits across the
Pacific to Mesoamerica and the northwestern coast of South America began
several hundred years before the Christian era. However, any such inter-
hemispheric contacts appear to have been the results of accidental voyages
originating in eastern and southern Asia. It is by no means certain that
even such contacts occurred; certainly there were no contacts with the ancient
Egyptians, Hebrews, or other peoples of Western Asia and the Near East.
I am enclosing for you a list of suggested readings should you be interested
in more research. We appreciate the interest which has prompted you to write.